北京外国语大学2014年硕士研究生入学考试英语同声传译专业试题

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更新于 2015-07-06

北京外国语大学2014年硕士研究生入学考试试题

招生专业:英语同声传译 科目名称: 英汉互译 

(考试时间3小时,满分150分,全部写在答题纸上,答在试题页上无效)

一、将下列段落译为汉语(25分)

In the pre-modern era, political, economic, and social life was governed by a dense web of interlocking relationships inherited from the past and sanctified by religion. Limited personal freedom and material benefits existed alongside a mostly unquestioned social solidarity. Traditional local orders began to erode with the rise of capitalism in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, as the increasing prevalence and dominance of market relationships broke down existing hierarchies. The shift produced economic and social dynamism, an increase in material benefits and personal freedoms, and a decrease in communal feeling. As this process continued, the first modern political ideology, classical liberalism, emerged to celebrate and justify it.

Liberalism stressed the importance of the rule of law, limited government, and free commercial transactions. It highlighted the manifold rewards of moving to a world dominated by markets rather than traditional communities, a shift the economic historian Karl Polanyi would call “the great transformation.” But along with the gains came losses as well—of a sense of place, of social and psychological stability, of traditional bulwarks against life’s vicissitudes.

Left to itself, capitalism produced long-term aggregate benefits along with great volatility and inequality. This combination resulted in what Polanyi called a “double movement,” a progressive expansion of both market society and reactions against it. (211)

 

二、将下列短文译为汉语(50分)

The European Union was established with a legal treaty and is founded on the principle of the rule of law. This concept centers on a set of rules governing all society’s processes and interactions and being above all society’s institutions and organizations. The rules or laws set the moral and ethical standards by which the behaviour of members of society and organizations are judged. For the rule of law and thereby civil society to flourish, it requires the citizens of a country to respect and trust legal processes, and the law to be applied in a consistent way to all. This gives people a feeling of inclusiveness and optimism about their future. The European Union’s Governance for Equitable Development (GED) project, implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) from 2007 to 2012, has assisted China to benefit from knowledge of Europe’s developed legal system and civil society through technical exchange, research and knowledge sharing.

As people’s incomes grow and material living standards rise, their expectations about the quality of life, participation in civil society, protection of property and individual rights increase. Meeting these expectations for a better life in a rapidly urbanizing society with a still significant rural population is one of the key challenges facing China today. This is where the GED project has supported China in moving to a more equitable, inclusive and vibrant civil society, based on the rule of law.

The project has worked with three key Chinese agencies, the National Peoples’ Congress, the Supreme People’s Court and the Ministry of Civil Affairs on topics ranging from law drafting and court efficiency to registration of civil society organizations. The project has produced remarkable results over five years, leading to an improved environment for civil society to flourish in China, increased citizen participation in law making, reduced barriers to seeking justice, increased transparency and efficiency of selected courts and progress in the consistency of court decisions. (321)

三、将下列段落译为英语(25分)

当今世界,和平、发展、合作是时代潮流更加强劲,但同时人类社会也面临着前所未有的挑战。历史罕见的国际金融危机重创了世界经济,其深层次影响仍在发酵,世界经济复苏进程曲折缓慢。气候变化、资源环境、粮食安全、能源危机、公共卫生、贫富差距、重大灾害、网络安全、恐怖主义等全球性问题更加突出,传统与非传统安全威胁相互交织。国际经济政治秩序还存在着不公正、不合理的问题,世界范围内市场、资源、人才、技术、标准等方面的不公平竞争远未消除。(211字)

四、将下列短文译为英语(50分)

没有作业多好,这是无数小学生的梦想。但现实却是那么无奈,总有大堆的书要读,总有大堆的作业要完成。然而在新西兰,这个梦想却可以变为现实。

 

一个偶然的机会,我参观了新西兰的一所小学。最让我惊愕的是,新西兰所有低年级的学生都没有家庭作业,也没有教育部统一制定的课本。小学生通常喜欢听故事,于是这里的老师就以故事书为课本。有时,老师也会布置一两道家庭作业题,但都是些手工制作。比如,让学生利用废弃的报纸折纸花,用喝过的饮料瓶做笔筒等。然后评比出最漂亮的作品、最有创意的作品,并为优胜者颁发奖状。

 

有人觉得,这样的教育方式,难以让孩子学到知识,难以应对以后的激烈竞争。可是,新西兰教育专家却认为,知识容易弥补,而快乐成长不容替代。这样的教育会让孩子人格更为健全,掌握知识更加主动,也能成为社会需要的出色人才。(347字)

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