招生专业：英语同声传译 科目名称： 英汉互译
In the pre-modern era, political, economic, and social life was governed by a dense web of interlocking relationships inherited from the past and sanctified by religion. Limited personal freedom and material benefits existed alongside a mostly unquestioned social solidarity. Traditional local orders began to erode with the rise of capitalism in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, as the increasing prevalence and dominance of market relationships broke down existing hierarchies. The shift produced economic and social dynamism, an increase in material benefits and personal freedoms, and a decrease in communal feeling. As this process continued, the first modern political ideology, classical liberalism, emerged to celebrate and justify it.
Liberalism stressed the importance of the rule of law, limited government, and free commercial transactions. It highlighted the manifold rewards of moving to a world dominated by markets rather than traditional communities, a shift the economic historian Karl Polanyi would call “the great transformation.” But along with the gains came losses as well—of a sense of place, of social and psychological stability, of traditional bulwarks against life’s vicissitudes.
Left to itself, capitalism produced long-term aggregate benefits along with great volatility and inequality. This combination resulted in what Polanyi called a “double movement,” a progressive expansion of both market society and reactions against it. (211）
The European Union was established with a legal treaty and is founded on the principle of the rule of law. This concept centers on a set of rules governing all society’s processes and interactions and being above all society’s institutions and organizations. The rules or laws set the moral and ethical standards by which the behaviour of members of society and organizations are judged. For the rule of law and thereby civil society to flourish, it requires the citizens of a country to respect and trust legal processes, and the law to be applied in a consistent way to all. This gives people a feeling of inclusiveness and optimism about their future. The European Union’s Governance for Equitable Development (GED) project, implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) from 2007 to 2012, has assisted China to benefit from knowledge of Europe’s developed legal system and civil society through technical exchange, research and knowledge sharing.
As people’s incomes grow and material living standards rise, their expectations about the quality of life, participation in civil society, protection of property and individual rights increase. Meeting these expectations for a better life in a rapidly urbanizing society with a still significant rural population is one of the key challenges facing China today. This is where the GED project has supported China in moving to a more equitable, inclusive and vibrant civil society, based on the rule of law.
The project has worked with three key Chinese agencies, the National Peoples’ Congress, the Supreme People’s Court and the Ministry of Civil Affairs on topics ranging from law drafting and court efficiency to registration of civil society organizations. The project has produced remarkable results over five years, leading to an improved environment for civil society to flourish in China, increased citizen participation in law making, reduced barriers to seeking justice, increased transparency and efficiency of selected courts and progress in the consistency of court decisions. (321)